Castra Batava] Passau II: The Alpine Forelands lie south of the Granite Plateau.
Because of population growth, development strategies, and the resulting shortage of land, cattle raising is in decline.
However, cattle still represent "the breath of life" for many Maasai. When given the chance, they choose herding above all other livelihoods. Hair smeared red with ochre a pigmentthey either carry spears or stand on one foot tending cattle.
These depictions oversimplify Maasai life during the twentieth century. Today, Maasai cattle herders may also be growing maize corn or wheat, rearing Guinea fowl, raising ostriches, or may be hired by ecologists to take pictures of the countryside.
Prior to British colonization, Africans, Arabs, and European explorers considered the Maasai formidable warriors for their conquests of neighboring peoples and their resistance to slavery. Caravan traders traveling from the coast to Uganda crossed Maasailand with trepidation.
However, in —81, when the British unintentionally introduced rinderpest a cattle diseasethe Maasai lost 80 percent of their stock. The British colonizers further disrupted Maasai life by moving them to a reserve in southern Kenya.
While the British encouraged them to adopt European ways, they also advised them to retain their traditions. These contradictions resulted, for the most part, in leaving the Maasai alone and allowed them to develop almost on their own. However, drought, famine, cattle diseases, and intratribal warfare warfare among themselves in the nineteenth century greatly weakened the Maasai and nearly destrtoyed certain tribes.
Since Kenyan and Tanzanian independence from Britain in the s, land ownership has changed dramatically. Modern ranching, wheat cultivation techiques, and setting of grazing boundaries in the Maasai district are becoming common. A wage and cash economy is replacing the barter trade system.
Consequently, the Maasai have begun to integrate themselves into the modern economies and mainstream societies of Kenya and Tanzania, albeit with considerable reluctance. Their myths speak about climbing up from a broad and deep crater bounded on all sides by a steep, long cliff.
By the s they had begun migrating with their herds into the vast arid, savanna-like grassland region of East Africa straddling the Kenya-Tanzania border. Today, their homeland is bounded by Lake Victoria to the west and Mount Kilimanjaro to the east.
Maasailand extends some miles kilometers from north to south and about miles kilometers at its widest east-west point. Estimates of the Maasai population include more thanin Tanzania, and close toin Kenya. The origins of Maa have been traced to the east of present-day Juba in southern Sudan.
More than twenty variants of Maa exist. The Maasai refer to their language as Olmaa. These stories include their ascent from a crater, the emergence of the first Maasai prophet-magician Laibonthe killing of an evil giant Oltatuani who raided Maasai herds, and the deception by Olonana of his father to obtain the blessing reserved for his older brother, Senteu a legend similar to the Biblical story of Jacob and Esau.
One origin myth reveals much about present-day Maasai relations between the sexes. It holds that the Maasai are descended from two equal and complementary tribes, one consisting strictly of females, and the other of males.
Instead of cattle, sheep, and goats, the women had herds of gazelles. Zebras transported their goods during migrations, and elephants were their devoted friends, tearing down branches and bringing them to the women who used them to build homes and corrals.
The elephants also swept the antelope corrals clean. However, while the women bickered and quarreled, their herds escaped. Even the elephants left them because they could not satisfy the women with their work.
The men occasionally met women in the forest. The children from these unions would live with their mothers, but the boys would join their fathers when they grew up. When the women lost their herds, they went to live with the men, and, in doing so, gave up their freedom and their equal status.
From that time, they depended on men, had to work for them, and were subject to their authority. Like other African religions, the Maasai believe that one high god Enkai created the world, forming three groups of people. The first were the Torrobo Okiek pygmiesa hunting and gathering people of small stature to whom God gave honey and wild animals as a food source.
The second were the neighboring Kikuyu, farmers to whom God gave seed and grain. The third were the Maasai, to whom God gave cattle, which came to earth sliding down a long rope linking heaven and Earth.
Project “Growing Up Sexually” (January-September ) originally was borne out of a literature review financially supported by the Dutch Dr. Mr. Edward Brongersma Foundation, Amsterdam. An air of excitement looms. The rite of passage, a three day ceremony is about to start. During this ceremony, the Maasai Warriors gather, celebrate and slaughter a bull in a grand and communal like finale. Drinking the bull's blood and consuming its flesh, . Facts about Maasai rite of passage Enkipaata, Emuratta, Eunoto, Eokoto e-kule, Enkang oo-nkiri, Olngesherr, are the most popular rite of passages and ceremonies in the Maasai society.
While the Torrobo were destined to endure bee stings, and the Kikuyu famines and floods, the Maasai received the noble gift of raising cattle.In age-organised societies such as Maasai and Samburu, cohorts of peers ascend simultaneously from childhood to elderhood via named age-sets, passing through a succession of rites of passage.
Age-sets are the fundamental organising principle of such societies. The rite of passage into warriorhood for a Maasai man is marked by a ritual ceremony called Eunoto, which signifies the transition into adulthood.
The young men are initiated as a whole age-set and thusly are welcomed into a new era of their lives (Art & Life in Africa, ). A growing number of women's organizations were active in the field of women's rights, including FIDA, the National Council of Women of Kenya, the National Commission on the Status of Women, the Education Center for Women in Democracy, and the League of Kenyan Women Voters.
What is a rite of passage? Why is it Important? Journeys is most concerned with initiatory rites of passage. Initiation is defined in the dictionary as, “the rites, ceremonies, ordeals or instructions with which a youth is formally invested with adult status in a community, society or sect.”.
In the Maa language, emorata means circumcision. This rite of passage is one of the most important Masai festivals - it marks the coming of age of Masai boys who are years leslutinsduphoenix.com planning for this ceremony itself takes two leslutinsduphoenix.com, the boys must give away everything that they own.
The Kenya education policy was implemented under the mandate of the Ministry of Education, which is also responsible for writing up educational curricula through the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE), and setting and regulating national examinations through the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC).