Socialization is simply the process by which we become human social beings. George Herbert Mead and Charles Cooley from the "Chicago School" contributed the Symbolic Interactionism perspective-most widely used today by sociologists. Mead and Cooley focused on how all the symbol-based interactions we have with others shape and form our self, our roles, our becoming "human," and ultimately our experiencing socialization throughout our life stages. Newborns are not born human—at least not in the social or emotional sense of being human.
The culture and personality movement was at the core of anthropology in the first half of the 20th century. It examined the interaction between psychological aspects of the individual and the overreaching culture.
Theorists of culture and personality school argued that socialization creates personality patterns. The study of culture and personality wanted to examine how different socialization practices resulted in different personality types.
Culture and personality was one of the reactions against the 19th social evolution and diffusionism just as the functionalism school of Radcliff-Brown and Malinowski was. The views of Franz Boas and some his students such as Ruth Benedict argued against that of the early evolutionists, such as Louis Henry Morgan and Edward Tylor, who believe each culture goes through the same hierarchical evolutionary system.
There is some debate on exactly how the field emerged. LeVine puts the beginning with W. Culture and Personality reached a peak during the s and s and lost support after It was viewed as being unscholarly, and the few remaining practitioners changed the name to psychological anthropology to avoid the stigma LeVine Because of the lack of uniformity in the study of Culture and Personality, there were at least five different viewpoints when studying the interaction between culture and personality.
This particular way of dividing the field was taken from LeVine in Culture, Behavior and Personality It was known as the configuration approach and combined the Boasian idea of cultural relativism with psychological ideas LeVine It took the stance that the culture and personality were so interconnected that they could not be viewed separately.
Often this view is criticized as exaggerating the consistency of the culture and avoiding particulars.
Benedict specifically was criticized as being too humanistic and not using enough quantitative data. A second view was that anti-culture-personality relationship. In this view, humans have developed adapted responses to the environmental conditions in order to survive.
A third view is psychological reductionism. This involved looking at individual psychological aspects as the cause of social behavior. Freud and those who followed him were contenders of this view. Overall, it seems to have gotten the least amount of attention or followers in Culture and Personality.
The last two views, personality mediation and two-systems, are the only two that theories maintained in contemporary anthropology LeVine Personality mediation was developed by Abram Kardiner, a psychoanalyst, with Ralph Linton, an anthropologist. It theorizes that the environment affects the primary institutions, like the subsistence and settlement patterns, of a society.
This, in turn, affects the basic personality structure which then affects the secondary institutions, such as religion. Personality becomes an intervening variable. This view reconciled sociological and cultural approached with that of psychological reductionism.
The two-systems view was developed by Inkeles and Levinson and Melford Spiro. It held that culture and personality interact and balance one another.
Culture and personality are viewed as aspects of a total field rather than as separate systems or even as legitimate analytical abstractions from data of the same order Kluckhohn In other words, culture and personality are interdependent and track along an interconnected curve.
Culture influences socialization patterns, which in turn shapes some of the variance of personality Maccoby Because of distinctive socialization practices in different societies, each society has unique culture and history.Onboarding, also known as organizational socialization, refers to the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors in order to become effective organizational members and insiders.
It is the process of integrating a new employee into the organization and its culture. Tactics used in this process include formal meetings, lectures, videos, . Importance Of Sociology. In all ages and human times ever since out erect and restless species appeared upon the planet, men have been living with others of their kind in something called societies.
FAITH | LEARNING | COMMUNITY.
In the way of Jesus, St Joseph’s Catholic High School aspires to respect and celebrate the dignity of all. Inspired by the life of St Joseph, the school promotes a culture of faith, justice and service.
May 19, · Political Socialization Essay. So the family becomes the most important of socialization.
This paper discusses why family is the most important of socialization. It reflects on the changes in the American family and the reason for the changes. Political Culture; Political Instability And Civil Wars “the Soul Within” (Socialization.
Location and Geography. Canada is located in the northern portion of the continent of North America, extending, in general, from the 49th parallel northward to the islands of the Arctic Ocean. Political socialization can occur because of family, peers, the mass media and many other factors.
3.) We said in class that political socialization is an influence of .