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Cleft sentence Save A cleft sentence is a complex sentence one having a main clause and a dependent clause that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence.
Clefts typically put a particular constituent into focus. In spoken languagethis focusing is often accompanied by a special intonation. In Englisha cleft sentence can be constructed as follows: The focus is on X, or else on the subordinate clause or some element of it.
It's Joey whom we're looking for. It's money that I love.
It was from John that she heard the news. It was meeting Jim that really started me off on this new line of work. Furthermore, one might also describe a cleft sentence as inverted. That is to say, it has its dependent clause in front of the main clause. We didn't meet her until we arrived at the hotel.
It wasn't until we arrived at the hotel that or when we met her. Types English is very rich in cleft constructions.
Below are examples of other types of clefts found in English, though the list is not exhaustive see Lambrecht for a comprehensive survey, Collins for an in-depth analysis of it-clefts and wh-clefts in English, and Calude for an investigation of clefts in spoken English.
It is Jaime for whom we are looking. A Fiat is what he wanted to buy. All he wanted to buy was a Fiat. It is not that he loves her. It's just that he has a way with her that is different.
And then there's a new house he wanted to build. If he wants to be an actor it's because he wants to be famous. Unfortunately, traditional accounts of cleft structures classify these according to the elements involved following English-centric analyses such as wh-words, the pronoun it, the quantifier all, and so on.
This makes it difficult to conduct cross-linguistic investigations of clefts since these elements do not exist in all other languages, which has led to a proposal for a revision of existing cleft taxonomy see Calude However, not all languages are so rich in cleft types as English, and some employ other means for focusing specific constituents, such as topicalizationword order changes, focusing particles and so on see Miller Cleftability in Language by Cheng Luo presents a cross-linguistic discussion of cleftability.
Structural issues The role of the cleft pronoun it in the case of English is controversial, and some believe it to be referential, while others treat it as a dummy pronoun or empty element. Hedberg proposes a hybrid approach, combining ideas from both takes on the status of the cleft pronoun.
She shows that it can have a range of scopes from semantically void to full reference depending on the context in which it is used.
Similarly controversial is the status of the subordinate clause, often termed the "cleft clause". While most would agree that the cleft clause in wh-clefts can be analysed as some kind of relative clause free or fused or headlessthere is disagreement as to the exact nature of the relative.
Traditionally, the wh-word in a cleft such as What you need is a good holiday, pertaining to the relative What you need, is understood to be the first constituent of the relative clause, and to function as its head. Bresnan and Grimshaw posit a different analysis.
They suggest that the relative clause is headed rather than headlesswith wh-word being located outside the clause proper and functioning as its head. Miller also endorses this approach, citing cross-linguistic evidence that the wh-word functions as indefinite deictics.
The cleft clause debate gets more complex with it-clefts, where researchers struggle to even agree as to the type of clause that is involved: It was because he was ill that we decided to return. It was in September that he first found out about it. It was with great reluctance that Maria accepted the invitation.
Finally, the last element of a cleft is the cleft constituent, which typically corresponds to the focus. As mentioned earlier, the focused part of a cleft is typically a noun phrase, but may in fact, turn up to be just about anything: It was on foot that he went there.
It was greedily and speedily that Homer Simpson drank his beer. It is to address a far-reaching problem that Oxfam is launching this campaign. It could be going home early or slacking off work that the boss reacted to.Cleft Sentences: The Potentials and Pitfalls, Spring 3 of 4 The most common cleft pattern is the It-cleft (like the examples above).
However, there is also.
Poem of the Masses. my smile melts with confusion artisticly enhanced she titty-danced her clients glanced at her mammarily-expansed bust, de-pantsed. This paper investigates how marked structures in an English literary text are translated into its Persian equivalents. The research questions in this paper focus on the problematic differences. Back, Pseudo-cleft Sentences 15 Bailey, The Patterning of Language Variation 16 Bailey, Contributions of the study of variation to the framework of the New Linguistics Coffman, Essay Examinations 64 Coker, Design of the Kindergarten Program Entry Survey Wirth, Derivation of Cleft Sentences in English 35 Wisdom, et. Al., Symposium: Other.
The analysis exhibits four patterns of cleft sentences: Prototypes of cleft sentences, imperfectly-transformed cleft sentences, cleft sentences with negation, and pseudo-cleft sentences, where some sentences integrate more than one pattern.
Definition and Identification of Theme Chapter 3: Definition and Identification of Theme 48 both imaginary and real, abstract and concrete (ideational metafunction), to convey their of individual clauses or sentences to the unit of text. Theme incorporates, at a higher level.
Cleft lip and cleft palate can occur on one or both sides of the mouth. Because the lip and the palate develop separately, it is possible to have a cleft lip without a cleft palate, a cleft palate.
Cleft Emphasis 1- Preparatory "it". Our sentence: My brother gave the book to Ryan yesterday. It was my brother that gave the book to Ryan yesterday. (here the emphasized word is "my brother") It was the book that my brother gave to Ryan yesterday.
(here the emphasized word is "the book"). Creative Minds Essay Contest Winners. He is co-editor of Fakes: An Anthology of Pseudo-Interviews, There was a dusting of freckles on the wide bridge of her nose, and a slight cleft in her chin. I could see the life in her face, with all its beauty and imperfections.