Constitution of the Philippines The Malolos Constitution was the first republican constitution in Asia. It also called for a parliamentary republic as the form of government. The president was elected for a term of four years by a majority of the Assembly. Two acts of the United States Congress passed during this period can be considered Philippine constitutions in that those acts defined the fundamental political principles and established the structure, procedures, powers and duties of the Philippine government.
Constitutional history of the Philippines Introduction The Republic of the Philippines sits on an archipelago in Southeast Asia and consists of 7, islands with a total area ofsquare kilometres.
It is located at the intersection of several bodies of water: Over 90 million people live on the islands, some 12 million of whom live in the capital region, Metro Manila. Most of the people on the islands are of the same racial stock as the Malays and the Indonesians, but a Chinese minority around 1.
There are eight major languages and close to a hundred dialects. Constitutional history The Philippines had long been used as a trading port in Asia, and this led to their colonization by the Spanish and later by the Americans.
The Spanish converted most of the population to Catholicism and the religion remains the dominant one in the country. During the later part of more than years of Spanish rule, nationalist sentiment began to grow among groups of Indios which was how the Spanish referred to the Filipinosfuelled in large measure by the writings of national hero Jose Rizal later executed by the Spanish authorities and other ilustrados the Filipino intellegensia.
A revolution was launched against Spain and the revolutionaries declared Philippine independence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, What became known as the Malolos Congress was convened on September 15, and the first Philippine Constitution, called the Malolos Constitution, was approved on January 20,ushering what is called the First Philippine Republic.
In the Spanish-American War ofthe revolutionaries sided with the Americans, hoping that, with the defeat of Spain, independence would be granted by the US to the Philippines.
This, however, did not happen. After Spain ceded or sold the islands to the United States in the Treaty of Paris, the US immediately proceeded to brutally suppress the Philippine independence movement.
Inthe US passed the Jones Act which specified that independence would only be granted upon the formation of a stable democratic government modelled on the American model, not the French model as the previous constitution had been.
The US approved a ten-year transition plan in and drafted a new constitution in A new constitution was ratified in by Filipino collaborators who were called the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod ng Bagong Pilipinas Kalibapi.
An active guerilla movement continued to resist the Japanese occupation. The Japanese forces were finally defeated by the Allies in and this sorry chapter came to a close.
Philippine independence was eventually achieved on July 4, The Constitution, which featured a political system virtually identical to the American one, became operative.
The system called for a President to be elected at large for a 4-year term subject to one re-electiona bicameral Congress, and an independent Judiciary.
Independence to martial law From the moment of independence, Filipino politics have been plagued by the twin demons of corruption and scandal. Notwithstanding, Presidents Ramon MagsaysayCarlos Garciaand Diosdado Macapagal managed to stabilize the country, implement domestic reforms, diversify the economy, and build Philippine ties not only to the United States, but also to its Asian neighbours.
Ferdinand Marcos was elected president in and was re-elected inthe first president to be so re-elected. Desirous of remaining in power beyond his legal tenure, he declared martial law injust before the end of his second and last term, citing a growing communist insurgency as its justification.
He then manipulated an ongoing Constitutional Convention and caused the drafting of a new constitution — the Constitution — which allowed him to rule by decree until when the presidential system of the Constitution was replaced with a parliamentary one.
Under this new system, Marcos held on to power and continued to govern by decree, suppressing democratic institutions and restricting civil freedoms. He continued to suppress dissent and thousands of vocal objectors to his rule either mysteriously disappeared or were incarcerated. Despite economic decline, corruption allowed Marcos and his wife Imelda to live extravagantly, causing resentment domestically and criticism internationally.
The election was marked by fraud on the part of Marcos and his supporters but Marcos had himself declared the winner constitutionally, amidst international condemnation and nationwide domestic protests. Under pressure from the United States, Marcos and his family fled into exile.THE CONSTITUTION.
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. PREAMBLE. We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure.
FAST FACTS: Philippine Constitution. February 2 of each year is Constitution Day to commemorate the highest law of the land The Constitution. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES PREAMBLE We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a.
Philippine Constitution - ARTICLE 3: BILL OF RIGHTS Principles SEC. 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches. Preamble to the Constitution PREAMBLE = PANIMULA This is a side-by-side presentation of the Philippine Constitution’s preamble in .
leslutinsduphoenix.com PDF generated: 31 Jul , Philippines Page 3 • Source of constitutional authority Preamble • General guarantee of equality • God or other deities • Motives for writing constitution.