How do you plan a project

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How do you plan a project

Plotting participants self-reported height, weight, and 7 days of dietary info recorded using an online calorie counterwe can plot percentage of daily calories from fat all sources against body mass index BMI — which we calculate from the height and How do you plan a project of the participant.

In other words, as fat goes up in the diet, BMI does not per se. Note we just started sequencing poo samples. Will be able to see how the metadata correlates with the microbial data in a few months — stay tuned. As I look at the preliminary generic metadata below and follow the conversation around the benefits of a low carb diet, I continue to be concerned about the low-carbers gut microbiota note I eat meat daily, so my diet is high in fat, animal protein — but also dietary fiber — as I eat a large diversity and qty of plants.

While there is no denying the wonderful results many people enjoy on a low and even lower carb diet — specifically weight loss, which is well-documented now in the peer-review research — the impact on the gut microbiota is not well understood. This data will allow us to compare the gut microbial communities of this population against other dietary strategies.

But again, please note we have not completed sequencing of low, low carb eaters and so are not presenting any of that data [the plot is just metadata on fat and BMI — which tells us nothing about gut health of the various dots in the plot]. The following discussion is based on some general observations based on the existing literature about fermentation, pH, and its impact on the gut microbiome.

Please note the data in the plot above is self-reported and preliminary. As with all self-reported data, its not ideal.

How do you plan a project

As data points are added over the coming months, will be interesting to see if the lack correlation holds. The average age of the persons in the plot is 46 — the youngest is 2, the oldest is Depending on whom you talk with, a low carb diet is many different things to many people.

I think most misinterpret a Paleo or Primal lifestyle as somehow low carb. It can be, but most folks eat a diversity and quantity of whole plants that exceed that of the average American — often by a long shot.

It can sometimes be a little low carb-like due the absence of high caloric foods made from grains. But I often find people who skip grains, sugar and the like as really paying attention to whole plants in their diet — which is, of course, a good thing.

But a bona fide low, low carb eater is another animal all together. Especially if those carbs contain a limited amount of resistant starch and other dietary fibers — food for gut bacteria. That said, even though someone who eats as much as g of carbs a day can still be starving their guts bugs if those foods contain little to now indigestible substrates fibera generic rule of thumb albeit an ugly measure is less overall carbohydrates — especially when you start dropping below g a day — translates into a dramatic drop in the amount of food reaching your colon where the vast majority of your intestinal microbial community resides.

There are exceptions to every rule, but follow my logic for a moment. When it comes to the health and well being of your gut microbes, nothing matters more than fermentable substrates You can read about hereherehereherehereherehereherehere — you get the idea. As fermentation drops, so to does the byproducts of fermentation which include short chain fatty acids primarily acetate, butyrate, propionateorganic acids, and gases like hydrogen.

All of this can and will dramatically shift the pH of the colonic environment. As it stands in a healthy or normal gut, the pH of the colon changes from proximal to distal end, being more acidic in the proximal front end than the tail end — mainly as a function of more rapid fermentation as food items empty from the small intestine.

As the pH shifts to being more alkaline from less fermentation, a number of shoes begin to drop or can.


Coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, might bloom — not a good thing. You see the same blooms following antibiotic treatment. In addition, as pH shifts away from acidicthe genus Bacteroides can also bloom as well, gaining an ecological niche in this less acidic environment courtesy of a low carb diet.

For those of you keeping score, many talk about the American gut in general being dominated by Bacteroides as a function of our high fat, high sugar diet.

The reality is, it might have to do with what we are not eating — dietary fiber of all kinds. The all-important butyrate producers Roseburia spp. A drop in fecal butyrate and butyrate producing bacteria was demonstrated in an elegant study comparing diets of varying amounts of carbs.

Given the importance of butyrate in colonic health, any dietary strategy that potentially shifts pH away from acidity as a function of reduced fermentation, might contribute to various forms of IBD. So, low carb equals a less acidic colonic environment due to the drop in fermentation and I presume harder, and less frequent stools as a function of reduced biomass from bacteria — or maybe not.

As pH shifts, prospects for opportunistic pathogens increase, as does opportunities for gram-negative bacteria like Bacteroides and Enterobacter. When you add this up — and a lot of more shifts in the microbial ecology of the low carb gut — you most certainly have a classic case of microbial dysbiosis — as the name implies, an imbalance.

This dysbiosis can lead to issues associated with IBD, autoimmune disease, metabolic disorders and so on. But again, a large cohort of low, low carb dieters has never been looked at using 16S rRNA methods.

So the jury is still out — but will be fascinating to see. A bit of a paradox in all of this is the increased likelihood that a low carb microbial community will most certainly lead to increased gut permeability — a well-known phenomenon whereby microbial parts lipopolysaccharides, which leads to metabolic endotoxemia and whole microbes themselves bacteremia leak from the intestinal track into the blood, leading to low-grade inflammation that is at the root of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and heart disease.

Just wanted to point out some obvious concerns maybe unfounded and that if we get a large enough sample of low carb folks in American Gut, we might be able to provide some interesting insight — or not.

Who knows, maybe low carb folks have super healthy gut microbiota whatever that is. The more people we have for each dietary group, the more we will hopefully learn.Environment. We are proud to be a part of SA Climate Ready, working with UTSA and the City of San Antonio.

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