Cicero the patriot essay

Greg Johnson 1, words White Nationalism is not nationalism for undifferentiated, generic white people. Such beings do not exist.

Cicero the patriot essay

By the third quarter of the century, Tonic Sol-fa numbered hundreds of thousands of practitioners at home and in the colonies, and had outstripped competing sight-singing methods. This essay argues that Tonic Sol-fa promoted a way of managing behavior that worked alongside rational recreation and newly introduced institutional surveillance strategies.

But, finally, that particular element in this whole combination which most impressed myself, and through which it is that to this hour Mr. The passage above, placed in a paragraph where the author outlines why he writes about mail-coaches, is highly representative of how music was commonly used in nineteenth-century Britain as a conceptual aid for systems of public organization.

Embedded one within the other, the metaphors of music and the body are shared among various discourses, combining together to describe a harmonized national geography and political system.

The role of culture and the body in this national grouping process went beyond being simply metaphoric. Increasingly at London and provincial concerts in the second half of the century, the cultured ear was imagined as organizing the gathered masses.


As audience members were taught how better to appreciate music and as they grew to believe that a lively attention to music-making and compositional structure was a desirable social trait, they increasingly listened silently to a whole musical program rather than talking and moving about, or arriving late and leaving early.

One of the most significant dates within this web of belief and practice was Januarythe month when Congregational Minister John Curwen first published on Tonic Sol-fa. Of course, there were many other ways of making music at this time, too, from the rowdy drinking song to the concert soloist—precisely those risky or independent behaviors that champions of mass music like Curwen sought to curb McGuire, Music and Victorian Philanthropy 78, The present article focuses on the group music-making of the rational recreation movement especially Tonic Sol-fa to show how similar and interactive this discourse was with that of other contemporaneous group-management methods.

As is commonly known, rational recreation was begun in the tempestuous s by middle- and upper-class philanthropists who sought to help the working poor by providing libraries, lectures, and other educational activities alongside improvements in sanitation, nutrition, and workplace safety.

My aim is to treat this particular subject Tonic Sol-fa in some depth, with awareness that covering decades within a single article means sometimes painting with broad brush strokes over a richly nuanced and complex history of music. It is also vital to remember that Tonic Sol-fa was just one very successful branch of a much wider singing movement.

The leaders of the two systems disagreed with each other and J. Our discussion begins with an overview of how music formed part of rational recreation, including the perceived scientific grounding of its pedagogic method, its links with other sign systems of the day, and the implications of a movement that was oriented mostly toward workers.

The final section considers how practitioners stressed their sense of the transcendent and magical qualities that music brought to their lives quite apart from any social or religious mission. Managing morals through singing While developments in music pedagogy and concert etiquette might today be mostly regarded as insular to music history, in reality they interacted with the organizational strategies of other Victorian institutions.

Just as surveillance and discipline were used to rehabilitate or reclaim deviants such as criminals or the mentally ill Foucaultmusic for the masses was seen as having potentially corrective work to do. In looking back over the century, J.

He looked round the England ofand found a population as rude in manner, mind, and feeling as perhaps could be found in any part of the civilised world. He discovered a larger proportion of juvenile criminals than in any country of Europe.

He saw that some amount of pleasurable relaxation from labour was necessary to every condition of animal existence.

Music would not make a bad man a good man, but there is no man, he said, who would not have been better for the influence of music.

With its perceived ethical appeal, J. Spencer Curwen recalls that music was used for correctional purposes and was seen to assist other early Victorian movements to quell rebellion and uplift working people.

Considering developments in musical practices as part of wider social procedures thus highlights the importance of music and musical ensembles to Victorian social movements and, reciprocally, the centrality of ideas of collective behavior to performance practices and music education.

In the early s, bourgeois reformers responded in part to the threat of Chartism by supporting working-class music education and performance Russell 17, 22—4. Brass bands associated with mines were an invaluable part of this phenomenon and sight-singing was especially far-reaching, being connected to and promoted through other movements such as rational recreation, the Ragged Schools and temperance.

The United Service Gazette says—We observe that singing classes have been introduced into the 76th Foot. We learn that the general officer commanding the Portsmouth district intends inviting Mr. Hullah to the garrison for the purpose of inoculating the troops with his admirable system; and we hear from a corps in Ireland that not only are the men encouraged to glee and part singing, but are now in the habit of chaunting [sic] the whole of the service in the parish church of the town in which they are quartered.

We hope to hear of the extension of the rational and harmonious pastime.

Cicero the patriot essay

Not only should singing classes be instituted, but music might be taught and facilities afforded for its cultivation at a very moderate expense. Taylor ; Hyde 86—7. May you have the pleasure of seeing these children, when God shall tune their hearts, not obliged, with one part of the congregation, to pay so much attention to the leader and the tune as to neglect the sense, or inclined, with the other, to pay so little, as to cause grating and drawling when only one voice of united praise should be heard: During the following decades, the Curwens began publishing the Tonic Sol-fa Reporter which contained articles about the Tonic Sol-fa community as well as music in syllable notationstarted the Tonic Sol-fa Association, began a Tonic Sol-fa College, and gradually shifted from being oriented toward the teaching of simple tunes to translating more complex music into the notation.

Curwen, Story 5, 8, 10, In the classroom, the instructor pointed to a letter in the central column on this chart and the students sang the corresponding scale tone, learning in the process not only to understand the relationships between notes in a single key, but also through the side columns how keys related to each other Unseld 1.

Tonic Sol-fa School Modulator and Complete Modulator In revisions to the system inJohn Curwen introduced hand signs to correspond to the notes of the scale.

After students became familiar with the visual and syllabic system, they moved to books that used syllables rather than traditional music notation. While working from these manuals, they beat time with wands J.

Phyllis Weliver, “On Tonic Sol-fa, January ″ | BRANCH

Finally, an accomplished practitioner would be able to sing from published music also in syllable notation that reproduced the greatest works of living and dead composers, with rhythms indicated mostly by the punctuation marks of written language a system of lines, half-lines, colons, commas and dashes showed strong and weak pulses, the subdivision of beats and tied notes McGuire, Music and Victorian Philanthropy 11, Dear Hannah, Michael Eric Dyson's Tears We Cannot Stop, the latest manifesto of black American activists, has been approved by the Holy Spirit and thus it remains thousand years have passed since the last books were approved by The Almighty, and since then we've had a lot of pretenders.

FLSSAR Governing Documents. The following text below is the Table of Contents for each of the 2 volumes comprising the Florida Society's Governing Documents. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. DIR Atlas AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.) [Additional entry on this emperor's life is available in DIR Archives].

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Researched and Written by Timothy M. Silver “I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America. In January , John Curwen launched Tonic Sol-fa – a system for teaching people to sing, which he believed would improve individual and national morality.

By the third quarter of the century, Tonic Sol-fa numbered hundreds of thousands of practitioners at home and in the colonies, and had outstripped competing sight-singing methods.

This essay argues that Tonic Sol-fa promoted a way of.

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