She was the author of a number of children's books and the widow of publisher Daniel Lothrop. She was a friend of Julia Ward Howe and the Alcott family.
Revolutions, which are the result of the crisis in its most extreme form, involve the overthrow not merely of the government but of the political order itself.
Typically, a revolution is preceded by a series of strains within the system: A revolution constitutes a challenge to the established political order and the eventual establishment of a new order radically different from the preceding one.
The great revolutions of European historyespecially the Glorious EnglishFrenchand Russian revolutions, changed not only the system of government but also the economic systemthe social structure, and the cultural values of those societies.
Historically, the concept of revolution was seen as a very destructive forcefrom ancient Greece to the European Middle Ages. The ancient Greeks saw revolution as a possibility only after the decay of the fundamental moral and religious tenets of society.
Plato believed that a constant, firmly entrenched code of beliefs could prevent revolution. Any radical alteration in basic values or beliefs provides the ground for a revolutionary upheaval.
During the Middle Agesthe maintenance of the established beliefs and forms of government remained the priority. Much attention was given to finding means of combating revolution and stifling changes in society. Religious authority was so strong and its belief in the maintenance of order so fundamental that the church directed people to accept the inequities of power, instead of upsetting the stability of society.
Later and modern revolutionary thought Only after the emergence of secular humanism during the Renaissance did this concept of revolution, as a cause of the desecration of society, change to embrace a more modern perspective. This new acceptance of change placed Machiavelli at the forefront of modern revolutionary thought, even though he never used the word revolution in his texts, and he was primarily concerned with the creation of a truly stable state.
He also saw revolution as the right of society to defend itself against abusive tyrants, creating a new order that reflected the needs of the people. To Milton, revolution was the means of accomplishing freedom. Later, in the 18th century, the French, Haitianand American revolutions were attempts to secure freedom from oppressive leadership.
Modern revolutions have frequently incorporated utopian ideals as a basis for change. John Milton at age 62, chromolithograph after a pastel by William Faithorne.
This idea helped serve as a basis for the American and French revolutions.
Immanuel Kant, print published in London, Hegel was a crucial catalyst in the formation of 20th-century revolutionary thought.
He saw revolutions as the fulfillment of human destiny, and he saw revolutionary leaders as those necessary to instigate and implement reforms.
Marx believed in progressive stages of human history, culminating in the working-class overthrow of the property-owning class.
For society to advance, the working class, or proletariatmust take over the means of production. Marx viewed this eventuality as the conclusion of the human struggle for freedom and a classless societythus eliminating the need for further political change.
Communist revolutions led by Marxists took place in Russia, YugoslaviaChina, Vietnamand Cuba, among other countries, in the 20th century.
This leads to a fracture of political authority, as the governing body must rely upon an increasingly desperate use of force to remain in power.
Commensurate with this is the emergence of reform elements that serve to emphasize the corruption of the political authority. As the existing political order begins to lose its grasp on authority, momentum builds among the diverse forces of the opposition.
As the government becomes more precarious, the splinter groups that form the threat to the existing order band together to topple the authority. Brinton also observed the different stages of a major revolution.
After the government is overthrown, there is usually a period of optimistic idealism, and the revolutionaries engage in much perfectionist rhetoric.FLORIDA SAR Governing Documents. The following text below is the Table of Contents for each of the 2 volumes comprising the Florida Society's Governing Documents.
In the midth century, American historian Crane Brinton analyzed the tendencies of a society prior to a major revolution. He saw a prerevolutionary society as having a combination of social and political tensions, caused by a gradual breakdown of the society’s values.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between and The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of leslutinsduphoenix.com defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (–) in alliance with France and others..
Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation. How the American Revolution Affected Women In order to fully understand the changes that women’s lifestyles underwent after the Revolution, one must first understand what the status of women was prior to the Revolution and what roles they played during and after the Revolution.
Links to online books and articles relating to the American Revolution generally and to the Southern Campaign specifically. Most visibly, the market revolution encouraged the growth of cities and reshaped the lives of urban workers.
In , only New York had over one hundred thousand inhabitants.